1) …… Outside, he knelt in the wet grass, tied his shoes, and then swung off toward the barn. There, ducking under the pitchforks, he filled a bucket with oats and water to make breakfast for his sows in the orchard. To get to the hogs he took the shortest way over the bridge above the swirling stream. As he passed over the water, he saw the boat of his grandfather pounding itself to pieces against the jagged rocks.
a) It was obvious from the very start of it that Tom’s Saturday morning would be different from other mornings of the week because hardly had he got up then he sadly realised that he had lost one shoe the previous night when he had had too much to drink.
b) Tom silently put on and tied his shoes as soon as he left his bed since he was sure that he would be asked to set the table if one of his parents happened to wake up.
c) Tom’s Saturday morning started very early as on other days of the week as he made his way to the garden.
2) …… One example is the new breed of cattle being developed by the Brazilians and specially adapted to withstand the pests and the climate of the tropics. And so it is that they are not only working on a new breed of cattle, but also on a new type of grass that is suitable to feed them.
a) Brazil is doing her best to make sure that the flow of tourists continues while the country prospers as far as agriculture is concerned.
b) In South America, where Brazil, together with Argentina, is the driving force of economy, farmers are surprised to find that their cattle will refuse to eat any sort of fodder that is imported from sub-tropical countries.
c) The Brazilians today are developing their own civilisation – not a European civilisation, but one which is adapted to the tropical climate, tropical vegetation, tropical light, and tropical colours.
3) …… If you say only that it is loss of memory, you include in the group of amnesiacs any man who forgets his wife\’s birthday or goes off to the office without his wristwatch. Actually, amnesia is something a bit more sinister. It is loss of memory, to be sure, but it is the sort brought on by injury, overwork, worry, or a nasty blow on the head.
a) What can be done to stop amnesia?
b) What, then, is amnesia?
c) Why is amnesia so common?
4) …… In the first place, the ant often brings to the surface from a depth of several feet considerable quantities of subsoil. This is spread over the surface and exposed to the atmosphere. In the second place, the burrows quickly conduct air and the moisture into the deeper recesses of the soil.
a) Although most ants prefer to dwell in houses where they can comfortably feed from the kitchen, garden ants choose to dig their complex labyrinth system out in the garden
b) Common garden ants are harmful not only as pests that eat our crops but also simply because they are hard to destroy
c) While the activities of common garden ants are often annoying, their excavations are extremely valuable in renewing the soil
5) …… First, it doubled the area of the United States and provided territory from which fourteen new states were created either wholly or in part. Second, it gave control over the mouth of the Mississippi River and opened up the way to foreign trade. Prior to the purchase, the waterway had been blocked by the Spanish, probably with the approval of Napoleon. Third, the land was rich in timber, minerals, and natural resources of other kinds. And, finally, the cost of transaction was unbelievably low; the total of $15,000,000 amounted to approximately four cents an acre.
a) It was with the Lousiana Purchase that the first traces of trouble that led to the Civil War started to appear in the US.
b) The Lousiana Purchase proved to be one of the most intelligent business pacts in the entire history of the U.S.
c) When the Lousiana Purchase enabled the United States to take a large area under its dominance, someone estimated that it would be one the most troublesome pacts that the US would ever sign.
6) …… The Harbour or Leopard Seals, mottled with light or dark spots, prefer to remain close to home on the rocks just off the shore. Their fur is of little commercial value. The Alaska Fur Seals breed in the Pribilof Islands but range the length and breadth of the Pacific. They are extremely valuable but are protected from hunters by strict international agreement. The Steller Sea-Lions have been found from Santa Barbara all the way to the Bering Sea, but they are now extremely rare. Their noise is a roar and this, plus the tawny, lion-like mane, doubtless accounts for the name. The California Sea-Lion is small, dark, and usually trainable. Because of its size and sagacity, it is most often selected for zoological gardens and trained seal acts.
a) California coast houses thousands of seals and sea-lions that are, at present, facing the danger of extinction.
b) Not very surprisingly, the four species of seals and sea-lions off the California coast consume an incredible amount of fish each day, thus infuriating American fishermen.
c) Seals and sea-lions known to the rookeries off the California coast are of four species.
7) …… This spider, named Micromegale debliemma, has only two eyes where most spiders have six or eight. Unlike most spiders, it does not have lungs but instead absorbs oxygen through its skin. Just three one-hundredth of an inch long, Micromygale is one of the world’s smallest spiders.
a) Scientists have discovered a spider which is remarkably different from any other known spider.
b) Scientists have discovered a spider which is in the size of the head of a pin.
c) Scientists have discovered a spider which inhabits the coastal forested regions of Panama.
8) …… Cirrus clouds are thin and delicate, whereas cumulus clouds look like cotton balls. Nimbus clouds are dark and ragged, and stratus clouds appear dull in colour and cover the entire sky.
a) A stratus cloud on the ground is called fog.
b) There are four basic cloud types – cirrus, cumulus, nimbus, and stratus.
c) It is possible to predict the weather by studying clouds.
9) ….. For example, King William the First, better known as William the Conqueror, was the first Norman king of England. Perhaps the most famous English writer of all times was William Shakespeare. And who can forget the American hero of the West, Buffalo Bill (William) Cody?
a) One of the most common boys’ names in English is “William”.
b) William” is not only a popular name today but also the name of many famous people in the past.
c) If your name is William, you have the same name as many other people.
10) ….. Straw, which can absorb up to four times its weight in oil, can be thrown on the spill and then be burned. Oil can be broken up and sunk by bither sand, talcum powder, or chalk. Under experimentation, some chemicals have been shown to disperse the spill into droplets, which microbes can then destroy.
a) There are many ways in which oil spills in the sea can be dealt with.
b) Contamination of the sea by oil spills is a critical problem.
c) Wind and wave action can carry oil spills a great distance across the sea.
1=c 2=c 3=b 4=c 5=b 6=c 7=a 8=b 9=b 10=a